Detailed introduction to the classification of the

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Classification of lathes detailed introduction

classification of CNC lathes

CNC lathes can be divided into horizontal and vertical types. Horizontal lathe has two kinds of horizontal guide rail and inclined guide rail. CNC sleeper cars with higher grades generally adopt inclined guide rails. According to the number of tool holders, it can be divided into single tool holder CNC lathes and double tool holder CNC lathes. The former is two coordinate control, and the latter is four coordinate control. Most double turret sleeping cars use inclined guide rails

Like ordinary lathes, CNC lathes are also used to process the rotating surface of parts. Generally, it can automatically complete the machining of cylindrical surface, conical surface, spherical surface and thread, as well as some complex surfaces of revolution, such as hyperboloid, etc. The workpiece installation methods of lathes and ordinary lathes are basically the same. In order to improve processing efficiency, CNC lathes mostly use hydraulic, pneumatic and electric chucks

the shape of CNC lathe is similar to that of ordinary lathe, that is, it is composed of bed, headstock, tool rest, feeding system, pressing system, cooling and lubrication system, etc. The feed system of CNC lathe is qualitatively different from that of ordinary lathe. The traditional ordinary lathe has a feed box and an exchange gear carrier, while the CNC lathe directly uses a servo motor to drive the slide and tool carrier through the ball screw to realize the feed movement, so the structure of the feed system is greatly simplified

there are many kinds of CNC lathes with different specifications, which can be classified according to the following methods

classified according to the position of lathe spindle

(1) vertical CNC lathe vertical CNC lathe is referred to as CNC vertical lathe for short. Its lathe spindle is perpendicular to the horizontal plane, and a circular workbench with a large diameter is used to clamp workpieces. This kind of machine tool is mainly used to process large and complex parts with large radial size and relatively small axial size when the stress is far less than its tensile strength

(2) horizontal CNC lathehorizontal CNC lathes are divided into CNC horizontal guide rail horizontal lathes and CNC inclined guide rail horizontal lathes. Its inclined guide rail structure can make the lathe more rigid and easy to remove chips

classified according to the basic types of processed parts

(1) chuck type CNC lathes have no tailstock and are suitable for turning disc (including stub shaft) parts. The clamping mode is mostly electric or hydraulic control, and the chuck structure has adjustable claws or non quenched claws (i.e. soft claws)

(2) top CNC lathe this kind of lathe is equipped with ordinary tailstock or CNC tailstock, which is suitable for turning long parts and disc parts with small diameter

classified by the number of tool holders

(1) single tool holder CNC lathes are generally equipped with various forms of single tool holders, such as four position horizontal positioning tool holders or multi position turret automatic positioning tool holders

(2) double turret CNC lathe the double turret configuration of this kind of lathe is distributed in parallel or perpendicular to each other

classified by function

(1) the simple NC lathe formed by the transformation of the feeding system of the ordinary lathe with stepping motor and single chip microcomputer has low cost, but the degree of automation and function are relatively poor, and the turning accuracy is not high. It is suitable for the turning of rotary parts with low requirements

(2) according to the turning requirements, the general CNC lathe is specially designed in structure and equipped with a general CNC system. The CNC system has strong functions, high automation and high machining accuracy, and is suitable for the turning of general rotating parts. This CNC lathe can control two coordinate axes at the same time, namely X axis and Z axis

(3) on the basis of the ordinary CNC lathe, the turning center adds the c-axis and power head. The more advanced CNC lathe has a tool magazine, which can control the three coordinate axes of X, Z and C, and the linkage control axis can be (x, z), (x, C) or (Z, c). Due to the addition of c-axis and milling power head, the processing function of this CNC lathe is greatly enhanced. In addition to general turning, it can also be used for radial and axial milling, surface milling, drilling of holes and radial holes whose center line is not in the rotation center of parts,

other classification methods

according to different control methods and other indicators of the CNC system, CNC lathes can be divided into many types, such as linear control CNC lathes, Two spindle control CNC lathes, etc; According to special or special process performance, it can be divided into thread CNC lathe, piston CNC lathe, crankshaft CNC lathe and so on

according to the different uses and structures, lathes are mainly divided into horizontal lathes and floor lathes, vertical lathes, turret lathes, single axis automatic lathes, multi axis automatic and semi-automatic lathes, profiling lathes and Multi Tool lathes, as well as various specialized lathes, such as camshaft lathes, crankshaft lathes, wheel lathes, and shovel lathes. Among all lathes, horizontal lathes are the most widely used. The dimensional tolerance grade of horizontal lathe can reach it8 ~ it7, and the surface roughness Ra value can reach 1.6 μ m。

the general lathe has a wide range of processing objects, and the adjustment range of spindle speed and feed rate is large. It can process the internal and external surfaces, end faces and internal and external threads of the workpiece. This kind of lathe is mainly manually operated by workers, with low production efficiency. It is suitable for single piece, small batch production and repair workshops

turret lathes and rotary lathes have turret tool holders or return wheel tool holders that can hold multiple tools, which can be used by workers to complete a variety of processes in turn with different tools in one clamping of workpieces, and are suitable for batch production

the automatic lathe can automatically complete the multi process processing of small and medium-sized workpieces according to a certain program, automatically load and unload materials, and repeatedly process a batch of the same workpieces, which is suitable for mass and mass production

Multi Tool semi-automatic lathes can be divided into single shaft, multi shaft, horizontal and vertical. The layout of the single shaft horizontal lathe is similar to that of the ordinary lathe, but the two groups of tool holders are respectively installed in the front and back of the spindle or above and below, which are used to process disc, ring and shaft workpieces, and their productivity is 3 ~ 5 times higher than that of the ordinary lathe

the profiling lathe can imitate the shape and size of the template or sample, and automatically complete the processing cycle of the workpiece. It is suitable for the small batch and batch production of workpieces with complex shapes. The productivity is 10 ~ 15 times higher than that of the ordinary lathe. There are many types, such as multi tool rest, multi shaft, chuck type, vertical type, etc

the spindle of the vertical lathe is perpendicular to the horizontal plane, the workpiece is clamped on the horizontal rotary workbench, and the tool rest moves on the horizontal beam or column. It is suitable for processing large, heavy workpieces that are difficult to install on an ordinary lathe. It is generally divided into single column and double column

when the shovel lathe lands and turns according to the broach, the tool holder periodically makes radial reciprocating motion, which is used for the forming tooth surface of shovel milling cutter, hob, etc. Usually with relief grinding accessories, a small grinding wheel driven by a separate motor is used to shovel and grind the tooth surface

special lathes are lathes used to process specific surfaces of certain types of workpieces, such as crankshaft lathes, camshaft lathes, carbon nano lathes, wheel lathes, axle lathes, roll lathes, ingot lathes, etc

combined lathes are mainly used for turning, but after adding some special parts and accessories, they can also be used for boring, milling, drilling, inserting, grinding, etc. with less oil and bubbles, they have the characteristics of "one machine with multiple functions", and are suitable for repair work on engineering vehicles, ships or mobile repair stations

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